Early Iron Age. 1st millennium BC-beg. 1st thousandth AD
The first people on the Ukrainian lands, whose name is known, are the Cimmerians mentioned in Homeric Odyssey. It is believed that these nomads, speaking in a related Iranian language, came to the Black Sea region in the IX century BC. from the Lower Volga region. Here he stopped for two centuries. They did not have written letters: the sources of the ancient Greeks and Assyrians tell about the Cimmerians, in particular Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
From the Dniester in the west to Vorskla in the east lived black people: a tribe, on whose land the Cimmerians made devastating raids. No matter how powerful the latter might seem, in the 7th century BC. they were superseded by the Scythians, also Iranian-speaking nomads; they lived horse breeding and wars. The greatest prosperity they reached in the V-IV centuries BC.
The first centralized state on the territory of Ukraine, Great Scythia, as Herodotus wrote, stretched a rectangle across the northern Black Sea coast from the Danube in the west to the Azov Sea in the east. From the north its limits are the Pripyat River and the line on which modern Chernigov, Kursk, and Voronezh lie. In the III century BC. Scythians in the Black Sea steppes replaced the Sarmatians – as they were called by the Greeks and Romans, apparently from the Iranian word meaning “belted with the sword”: they were also nomadic warriors. In the Black Sea steppes, they reigned for about six centuries, until in the first millennium AD they were replaced by the Goths and Huns. After their invasion, the Slavic tribes of antes and skeletons reigned in Ukraine.
600-650 years. Vennes, antes, sklaviny

About sklaviny (similar to the word “Slavs”, is not it?), Wrote, for example, Gothic historian VI century Jordan. According to him, the Slavs have a common progenitor, and they live with three pimenas: Veneta (or Venedi), Antes and Sklaviny. In the VII century Frankish chronicler Fredegar says that “the sklavins are called Venedes.” The Ants lived between the Dniester and the Dnieper.
Archaeologists sometimes find Ants treasures, consisting of gold and silver, looted during hikes. The warriors of the Antes were armed with poisoned arrows, spears, boards, shields and characteristic long swords. Antes were considered the strongest Slavic tribe: their soldiers served in the Byzantine army. The prisoners were used as slaves, sold them or took ransom from their neighbors for them. However, after some time, the captured slave became free and entered the community. The main deity of antes was Perun. Sacrifices differed in bloodlessness: food was sacrificed.
At the time of the antes, the cities of Kyiv and Volyn originated.
KIEVAN RUS
862-1132 years. Kievan Rus

This state arose in the IX century, when the East Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes united under the rule of the prince’s dynasty of Rurik. His story begins with the seizure of Kiev by Oleg, who subordinated the East Slavic tribes.
In the period of the heyday of Kievan Rus its borders were the Dniester and the upper course of the Vistula in the west, the Taman Peninsula in the southeast, the upper course of the Northern Dvina in the north. Geography also helps to understand the cities of Kievan Rus, the most ancient of which were Kiev, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl, Smolensk, Rostov, Ladoga, Pskov, Polotsk.
The reign of Prince Vladimir (circa 960 -1015) and Yaroslav the Wise (1019-1054) was the time of the highest prosperity of the state, the borders of which were unusually expanded (from the Baltic and the Carpathians to the Black Sea steppes).
By the middle of the 12th century, feudal fragmentation had begun in Kievan Rus, and it had broken up into fifteen separate principalities, ruled by different branches of the Rurik. The beginning of the fragmentation is 1132, when, after the death of Mstislav the Great, the son of Vladimir Monomakh, the power of the Kiev prince was no longer recognized by Polotsk and Novgorod. Kiev was formally considered the capital until the Mongol invasion (1237-1240).
1220-1240. The first clash with the Mongols

In the battle with the Mongols on the Kalka River (on the territory of the present-day Donetsk region on May 31, 1223) virtually all South Russian princes participated, many of them, like many noble boyars, perished. The victory fell to the Mongols. With the weakening of the South Russian principalities, the onslaught of Hungarian and Lithuanian feudal lords intensified, but the influence of the princes in Chernigov, Novgorod, and Kiev also increased. In 1240, the Mongols (under the leadership of Khan Baty, grandson of Genghis Khan) turned Kiev into ruins. The city went to Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, whom the Mongols recognized as the main, and then – to his son Alexander Nevsky. But they did not transfer the table to Kiev, and stayed in Vladimir.
CASTLE OF WESTERN UKRAINE

1245-1349. Galicia-Volyn principality

Early Iron Age. 1st millennium BC-beg. 1st thousandth AD
The first people on the Ukrainian lands, whose name is known, are the Cimmerians mentioned in Homeric Odyssey. It is believed that these nomads, speaking in a related Iranian language, came to the Black Sea region in the IX century BC. from the Lower Volga region. Here he stopped for two centuries. They did not have written letters: the sources of the ancient Greeks and Assyrians tell about the Cimmerians, in particular Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
From the Dniester in the west to Vorskla in the east lived black people: a tribe, on whose land the Cimmerians made devastating raids. No matter how powerful the latter might seem, in the 7th century BC. they were superseded by the Scythians, also Iranian-speaking nomads; they lived horse breeding and wars. The greatest prosperity they reached in the V-IV centuries BC.
The first centralized state on the territory of Ukraine, Great Scythia, as Herodotus wrote, stretched a rectangle across the northern Black Sea coast from the Danube in the west to the Azov Sea in the east. From the north its limits are the Pripyat River and the line on which modern Chernigov, Kursk, and Voronezh lie. In the III century BC. Scythians in the Black Sea steppes replaced the Sarmatians – as they were called by the Greeks and Romans, apparently from the Iranian word meaning “belted with the sword”: they were also nomadic warriors. In the Black Sea steppes, they reigned for about six centuries, until in the first millennium AD they were replaced by the Goths and Huns. After their invasion, the Slavic tribes of antes and skeletons reigned in Ukraine.
600-650 years. Vennes, antes, sklaviny

About sklaviny (similar to the word “Slavs”, is not it?), Wrote, for example, Gothic historian VI century Jordan. According to him, the Slavs have a common progenitor, and they live with three pimenas: Veneta (or Venedi), Antes and Sklaviny. In the VII century Frankish chronicler Fredegar says that “the sklavins are called Venedes.” The Ants lived between the Dniester and the Dnieper.
Archaeologists sometimes find Ants treasures, consisting of gold and silver, looted during hikes. The warriors of the Antes were armed with poisoned arrows, spears, boards, shields and characteristic long swords. Antes were considered the strongest Slavic tribe: their soldiers served in the Byzantine army. The prisoners were used as slaves, sold them or took ransom from their neighbors for them. However, after some time, the captured slave became free and entered the community. The main deity of antes was Perun. Sacrifices differed in bloodlessness: food was sacrificed.
At the time of the antes, the cities of Kyiv and Volyn originated.
KIEVAN RUS
862-1132 years. Kievan Rus

This state arose in the IX century, when the East Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes united under the rule of the prince’s dynasty of Rurik. His story begins with the seizure of Kiev by Oleg, who subordinated the East Slavic tribes.
In the period of the heyday of Kievan Rus its borders were the Dniester and the upper course of the Vistula in the west, the Taman Peninsula in the southeast, the upper course of the Northern Dvina in the north. Geography also helps to understand the cities of Kievan Rus, the most ancient of which were Kiev, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl, Smolensk, Rostov, Ladoga, Pskov, Polotsk.
The reign of Prince Vladimir (circa 960 -1015) and Yaroslav the Wise (1019-1054) was the time of the highest prosperity of the state, the borders of which were unusually expanded (from the Baltic and the Carpathians to the Black Sea steppes).
By the middle of the 12th century, feudal fragmentation had begun in Kievan Rus, and it had broken up into fifteen separate principalities, ruled by different branches of the Rurik. The beginning of the fragmentation is 1132, when, after the death of Mstislav the Great, the son of Vladimir Monomakh, the power of the Kiev prince was no longer recognized by Polotsk and Novgorod. Kiev was formally considered the capital until the Mongol invasion (1237-1240).
1220-1240. The first clash with the Mongols

In the battle with the Mongols on the Kalka River (on the territory of the present-day Donetsk region on May 31, 1223) virtually all South Russian princes participated, many of them, like many noble boyars, perished. The victory fell to the Mongols. With the weakening of the South Russian principalities, the onslaught of Hungarian and Lithuanian feudal lords intensified, but the influence of the princes in Chernigov, Novgorod, and Kiev also increased. In 1240, the Mongols (under the leadership of Khan Baty, grandson of Genghis Khan) turned Kiev into ruins. The city went to Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, whom the Mongols recognized as the main, and then – to his son Alexander Nevsky. But they did not transfer the table to Kiev, and stayed in Vladimir.
CASTLE OF WESTERN UKRAINE
1245-1349. Galicia-Volyn principality

In 1245 in the battle of Yaroslavl (near modern Yaroslav in Poland, on the River San), the troops of Daniel Galitsky defeated the regiments of Hungarian and Polish feudal lords. Daniel Galitsky, counting on the Western alliance against the Golden Horde, in 1253 received from the pope the title of king. The reign of Daniel Romanovich became the period of the greatest rise of the Galicia-Volyn principality. Its consolidation caused concern in the Golden Horde. The Principality was forced to pay tribute to the Horde, and the princes had to send out detachments for joint campaigns with the Mongols. Nevertheless, the Galicia-Volyn principality led an independent foreign policy.
In the second half of the 13th century the Galicia-Volyn principality did not control Podillia, but then regained control over these lands and gained access to the Black Sea; after 1323 again lost them. Polesie was annexed by Lithuania at the beginning of the XIV century, and Volyn – in the war for the Galician-Volyn inheritance between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Galicia was annexed by Poland in 1349. This year is considered to be the end of the existence of the Galicia-Volyn principality.
UNDER THE LITHUANIA
1386-1434 The Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duke of Lithuania, Olgerd, in 1362 defeated the Mongols at the Blue Waters (in the territory of the modern Kirovohrad region, near Novoarhangelsk) and annexed the Podolsky land. Then he dismissed the prince in Kiev, Fedor, subordinate to the Golden Horde, and gave the city to his son Vladimir. At first, these lands ceased to pay tribute to the Horde, in which then there was a struggle for power. In 1386, the Grand Duke of Lithuania became Jagiello. He adopted Catholicism and ruled in Poland under the name of Vladislav II until 1434. Many Orthodox princes opposed convergence with Poland: in 1381-1384, in 1389-1392 and 1432-1439, three civil wars took place. Many cities, among which, for example, Lviv, Kiev, Vladimir-Volynsky, got their own self-government, the so-called Magdeburg law.
In the 90s of the 14th century, the cousin Yagailo-Vladislav Vitovt, thanks to the union in the Mongols, managed to peacefully annex the vast territories of the Wild Field to the south.
COSSACK ERA
1751. Hetman and Zaporizhzhya Sich

The rebellion of Bogdan Khmelnitsky in 1648-1654 led to the emergence of an autonomous Hetmanate. At the Pereyaslav Rada Khmelnytsky accepted citizenship of the Russian kingdom, the Russian-Polish war of 1654-1667 began, during which the Civil War (Ruin) began in the Hetmanate. Left-bank Ukraine wished to be part of Russia, while the Right-Bank Ukraine wanted to join the Commonwealth.
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1676-1681, the Russian-Cossack army reflects the invasion of the Ottoman Empire into the Left Bank Ukraine. During the Northern War, Hetman Mazepa goes over to the side of the Swedish King Charles XII, with whom he is defeated in the Battle of Poltava. As a result, the autonomy of the Hetmanate was limited and it was managed through the Malorossiysk collegium. In the XVIII century Cossack nobility is integrated into the Russian nobility. In 1751, under the rule of the Hetmanate, Zaporizhzhya Sich was transferred, in 1764 Catherine II abolished the Hetmanate, in 1775 – Zaporizhzhya Sich. The Cossack nobility is equated with the Russian nobility, the Cossacks are allotted land annexed to Russia: Novorossiya, Kuban, Stavropol.
WHAT IS NOVOROSSIA?

In the Russian-speaking tradition, this name was used until the beginning of the XX century. It happened from Novorossiysk province (existed in 1764-1775 in the time of Catherine II and in 1796-1802 under Paul I). The so-called territories of the northern Black Sea region, which belonged to the Russian Empire as a result of the Russo-Turkish wars of the second half of the 18th century. Under Novorossiya (the province of the same name, then the ball was divided) were understood Kherson, Ekaterinoslav, Tavricheskaya, Bessarabskaya, as well as Stavropol Gubernia plus Kuban region with the Don Military Region. In many respects it coincides with the Ukrainian historical region of the Hetmanate. From the middle of the 20th century, the definitions “Northern Black Sea Coast” and “South Ukraine” were used. Today, the definition of “South-Eastern Ukraine” is used.
The term “Novorossia” is widely used by supporters of the federalization of Ukraine. On April 17, Russian President Vladimir Putin named “southeastern Ukraine” Novorossia during his “straight line”.

UKRAINIAN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC
1918-1920

UPR was proclaimed the Third Universal of the Ukrainian Central Rada on November 7, 1917. A broad national autonomy was supposed to be federally connected with Russia. The Fourth Universal on January 22, 1918 proclaimed the independence of the UPR. A year later, on January 22, 1919, the “Zluka Act” was proclaimed, which united the Western Ukrainian People’s Republic and the UPR.
The then Ukraine was much more modern, its territory was determined by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and recognized by Austria-Hungary, Germany, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. At the Paris Peace Conference, the URN delegation declared its borders, but they were not recognized because of the position of Britain, France and Poland.
So, the proclaimed Ukrainian territory included the lands of Eastern Poland, Transnistria and part of the Trans-Dniestria, extended to a depth of 250 km in the territory of modern southern Belarus and Russia, including part of the Kursk and Belgorod regions, as well as the lower Don. For example, on February 20, 1918, the legislative body of the Independent Kuban People’s Republic adopted a resolution on the accession of the Kuban to the UPR on a federative basis.
UPR was proclaimed the Third Universal of the Ukrainian Central Rada on November 7, 1917. A broad national autonomy was supposed to be federally connected with Russia. The Fourth Universal on January 22, 1918 proclaimed the independence of the UPR. April 29, 1918 the Hetman government dissolved the Centrorad, and the name of the UNR was replaced with the name of the Ukrainian state. December 14, 1918 returned the name of the UNR. At the Paris Peace Conference, the URN delegation declared the borders of the republic, but they were not recognized because of the position of Britain, France and Poland.
In 2005, a curious document appeared in Sumy. This is the map of independent Ukraine, compiled in 1918, which marked the Ukrainian state borders of that time, that is, the borders of the UNR. The specimen, as scientists believe, is the only one that survives to this day. The map, as it follows from the mark in the upper right corner, above the ruler scale, was released in Kharkov in the geodesic publishing house “Southern Expedition”. This rarity was handed over to the state by the family of Holubchenko from Sumy.

OLD DISPUTE ABOUT THE CRIMEA
On the peninsula in the days of the UPR, the local government was headed by the Tsar’s General Matvey Suleiman Sulkevich, who opposed the inclusion of the Crimea in the UNR. Hetman Skoropadsky, who considered the Crimea Ukrainian, imposed an economic blockade of the peninsula. As a result, at the talks, they decided to include Crimea into Ukraine on the rights of territorial autonomy.
The newspaper Tavricheskaya Golo wrote on January 3, 1918: “Great Russians, Tatars and Germans are the main nationalities of the Crimea, there are few Ukrainians in the Crimea and the simple inclusion of the Crimea along with other parts of Ukraine in the Ukrainian state would not meet the desire of the majority of the population. Ukraine’s population of the Crimea should receive a guarantee of freedom of its national self-determination and self-government, which is guaranteed by the autonomous structure of the region. ”

ALL POWER TO THE COUNCIL
1920-1951. USSR

In the Soviet Ukraine for a while there were two counties of the Belgorod region. When the question of the borders between the Ukrainian SSR and the RSFSR was considered, the prerevolutionary borders between provinces were taken as a basis. The authorities agreed that the leadership of Soviet Ukraine will not claim to the Don region of the RSFSR. At the same time, four districts in the north of the Chernigov province became part of the Gomel province. The RSFSR transferred Taganrog to Ukraine together with the district, but in 1924 it was returned to Russia. In 1925-1926, Ukraine continues to expand: it receives parts of the Kursk, Bryansk and Voronezh provinces.
In 1939, Soviet troops occupied the territory belonging to Poland, which entered the Ukrainian SSR. Then, in 1945, some of them were returned to Poland. The border passed along the line of Curzon, slightly deviating towards Poland. In the summer of 1940 the Soviet army occupied Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, which belonged to Romania. Transnistria was transferred to the Moldavian SSR. The Ukrainian SSR received Northern Bukovina with the city of Chernivtsi and the south of Bessarabia.

In 1945, part of Ukraine included part of Transcarpathia, which belonged to Czechoslovakia. In 1951, part of the Drohobych region (existed before 1959), the USSR gave to Poland. February 15, 1951, an exchange of territories between the USSR and Poland took place, as a result of which the Ukrainian SSR lost part of the territory of the Drogobych region.

NOT CRIME UNITED
1954-2014. Crimea

On February 5, 1954, the Crimean Region of the RSFR was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR by a resolution of the Supreme Council of the Russian Soviet Federative Republic. If some historians associate this with the personal initiative of the First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Nikita Khrushchev, others consider the transfer a forced measure connected with the difficult economic situation on the peninsula: there was a post-war devastation, the Crimean Tatars were deported, and Russian settlers did not have the skills of farming in the steppe zone.

March 16, 2014 in Crimea was an illegal referendum: the majority of the pro-Russian population voted for the entry of Crimea into Russia. At the same time, on the territory of the autonomy without identification marks, Russian military units operated that seized Ukrainian garrisons and blocked the ships of the Ukrainian Navy. Crimea was actually annexed by Russia, which took the peninsula into its composition. The international community does not recognize either the status of the Crimea defined by Russia as a subject of the Russian Federation, nor the results of a referendum, nor the self-proclaimed local government. Ukraine officially considers Crimea its territory, meanwhile on some Russian maps Crimea is already designated as a part of the Russian Federation.